TYPES OF DUAL LANGUAGE PROGRAMS
One of the decisions that will have to be made is which type of dual language program the district will implement. There are several types of dual language education programs that are popular.
- According to the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL; 2005), the team, "dual language," refers to the use of two languages for instruction in the classroom. The target language (other than English) is used for minimum of 50% of the time, and English is used for minimum of 10% of time.
- "Dual language immersion," or "two-way immersion," is a form of dual language education that includes two different linguistic groups in the classroom: English Learners (native speakers of the target language), who comprise at least 33% of the classroom and the English-only students (native English-speakers), who comprise at least another 33% of the classroom.
- Programs with only one linguistic group in the classroom are also a form of dual language education, and are referred to as "one-way immersion" programs if more than 67% of the students are English-only and “developmental bilingual” programs if more than 67% of the students are English Learners (Center for Advanced Research in the Language Acquisition [CARLA], 2016).
- A critical feature of a dual language education program is monolingual instruction, where only one language is used at a time. This establishes motivation for student language use.